Iron Deficiency Anemia |

Posted: 4/25/2021 - 0 comment(s) [ Comment ]
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Iron Deficiency Anemia

The loss of blood depletes hemoglobin and iron levels in the body, resulting in anemia. According to Jimenez, Kulnigg-Dabsch, and Gasche , the condition affects at least 25% of the global human population with the commonest type being iron deficiency anemia . Johnson-Wimbley and Graham report that IDA is caused by the inadequate intake of nutritional iron, the chronic loss of iron, or both. Ms. A. suffers from IDA due to the chronic menorrhagia and dysmenorrhea; the condition is evident due to the presenting signs and symptoms such as lower levels of hemoglobin, shortness of breath, and increased fatigability.

The preliminary vital signs and laboratory results of Ms. A. reveal a diagnosis of IDA. According to Johnson-Wimbley and Graham , the World Health Organization defines anemia as a condition in which women and men have less than 12g/dl and 13g/dl of hemoglobin respectively. In the given case, the values of hemoglobin, reticulocyte count, hematocrit, and erythrocyte count are 8 g/dl, 1.5%, 32%, and 3.1 million/mm3 respectively. Usually, hematocrit values in women of reproductive age range from 37-47% with erythrocyte and reticulocyte counts ranging from 3.6-5.0 million/mm3 and 1-1.5% . In this case, hemoglobin and erythrocyte levels are lower than normal, which indicates the presence of IDA, given that this woman has had a history of menorrhagia and dysmenorrhea for 10-12 years. The presence of elevated respiratory and heart rates is a mechanism of increasing oxygenation of blood. The vital signs are a manifestation of the body's compensatory mechanism due to the deficiency in the supply of oxygen to body cells caused by hemorrhage.

Furthermore, the morphology of red blood cells reveals the presence of microcytic and hypochromic cells on making a blood smear, which is a characteristic feature of IDA. The chronic loss of blood due to hemorrhage depletes iron stores; however, the presence of reduced hemoglobin levels compels the body to compensate for the loss by increasing the synthesis of red blood cells . Eventually, hypochromia and microcytosis can be detected on peripheral blood smears . DeLoughery reiterates that microcytic red blood cells can be recognized in IDA patients due to their smaller size than the nuclei of lymphocytes; hypochromia is also common, which manifests itself as an enormous central pallor in erythrocytes. Therefore, Ms. A. has IDA due to the presence of its characteristic red blood cell features, namely hypochromia and microcytosis.

Moreover, the history and the vital signs presented in the case of this golf player support the diagnosis of IDA. According to Williams and Hopper , anemic patients present with lightheadedness, frequent headaches, increased fatigability, dizziness, pallor, and shortness of breath. Moreover, they may experience symptoms of coldness in the feet and hands and chest pain . These manifestations are evident in the case of Ms. A. since she was experiencing low levels of energy, lightheadedness, and increased shortness of breath. Additionally, the reduction in hemoglobin levels is associated with an increased need for oxygen, which makes most patients demand a greater supply of this gas to enhance oxygenation of body tissues . Consequently, symptoms of anemia may develop if the supply of oxygen reduces or more blood is lost. The condition of Ms. A. worsens when she climbs mountains due to the reduction of oxygen supply associated with high altitudes in addition to the blood loss resulting from her menses.

In conclusion, Ms. A. has IDA due to her chronic menorrhagia and dysmenorrhea. This condition manifests itself in a reduction of red blood cell parameters such as hemoglobin, hematocrit, hypochromia, microcytosis, and erythrocytopenia. In the given case, the patient experienced shortness of breath, lightheadedness, and increased fatigability. Due to the reduction in hemoglobin levels, blood volume, and altitudinal supply of oxygen, the symptoms of IDA worsened, leading to the emergency clinical visit. This article was composed by Jeff Kip . More my works you can see here and recomended to all of you



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